The Jewish Encyclopedia of , Volume 11, page , points out that this was the turning point, namely the exact time when it became a practice in Israyl to no longer pronounce the Name Yahweh. He is identical either with Simeon I. The Babylonian Talmud , Tractate Yoma, page 39b, also verifies that it was upon the death of Simeon the Righteous, that all Israyl began to no longer pronounce the Name Yahweh. The Jewish Encyclopedia Volume 9, pages , not only confirms this fact, but it shows the strict prohibition and warning to all those who do not adhere to it.
The restriction upon communicating the Name proper probably originated in Oriental etiquette; in the East even a teacher was not called by name. After the death of the high priest Simeon the Righteous, forty years prior to the destruction of the Temple, the priests ceased to pronounce the Name Yoma 39b. From that time the pronunciation of the Name was prohibited. Zarah 17b. The Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Kiddushin, page 71a, openly admits, however, that the Name Yahweh was pronounced by all the children of Israyl, both small and great, before the death of Simeon the Just.
When unruly men increased, it was confided to the pious of the priesthood. M any teachers in Israyl came to believe that the Name Yahweh was too holy to be pronounced, so they began teaching the nation that only the High Priest should utter this Name, once a year on the Day of Atonement. Some time after the return from the Captivity, and before the beginning of the Christian era, the Jews came to believe that the Name YHWH was too sacred to be uttered on ordinary occasions.
It was said to be pronounced by the High Priest on the Day of Atonement.
P lease note the time period in which the Name of our Heavenly Father was suppressed, some time after the return from the captivity, and before the beginning of the Christian Era approximately B. This means that up to this time, the prophets, and in fact all the people of Israyl, used the great Name of Yahweh when they walked through the waters of the Red Sea; when they ate manna which came directly from Yahweh; when they saw their enemies expelled from in front of them; when they took the lands from their enemies; and all the while, they were becoming a healthy nation.
It was only in turning from Yahweh to idolatry, as we are doing today, that caused Yahweh to hide His face from Israyl and give their enemies advantage over them. Volume 9, pages , states: The pronunciation of the written Name was used only by the priests Num. V olume 1, pages , shows us this: … In the early period of the Second Temple the Name was still in common use , as may be learned from such proper names as Jehohanan, or from liturgical formulas, such as Halelu-Yah.
At the beginning of the Hellenistic era, however, the use of the Name was reserved for the Temple. From Sifre to Num. Thus says Tosef. Subsequently also the solemn utterance of the Name by the high priest on the Day of Atonement, that ought to have been heard by the priests and the people according to the Mishnah Yoma, vi.
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Tarfon or Tryphon relates Yer. Yoma, iii. V olume 11, page , shows us more: …the Mishnah Sotah vii. When a very young priest, the well-known tanna Tarfon witnessed this ceremony; and he declares that the high priest uttered the holy name of God so that his voice was merged in the song of priests Yer. Yoma 40d, below; Kid. Yoma 39b.
Biblical Archaeology Review. I mmorality came among the people because Yahweh and His Laws were not being taught or practiced. So without authority from the inspired words of the prophets, our forefathers removed the name of Yahweh from the memory of our people. The Tetragrammaton is the ancient Israelitish name for God.
This designation is met with as follows: Isaiah 65 times, Jeremiah 77 times, Minor Prophets Zechariah 52; Malachi 24 , Samuel 11, Kings 4; but it does not occur, on the other hand, in the Pentateuch, in Joshua, in Judges, or in the Hagiographa. There is no instance of it, however, in Canticles, Ecclesiastes, or Esther; and in Daniel it occurs 7 times in ch. I am written yodh-he , i. In the same way, the Babylonian Targ. This ancient prohibition of pronouncing the divine name persisted orally until the introduction of the Hebrew vocalic system, where the vowels written under the Tetragrammaton are those of the substitute word Adonai.
Its antiquity clearly shows that it originated in the oldest Jewish oral traditions that accompanied the transmission masora of the sacred text from the beginning. In this way, they sought to forestall any change in the form of the sacred text that might be made by an overhasty scribe. R obert Pfeiffer, in his Introduction to the Old Testament , supplies more information: To avoid the utterance of the name Yahweh, both before and after the adoption of the qere, other devices were employed. In some cases adonay was written in the text so in Dan. Arnold, Ephod and Ark , pp.
In the Aramaic portions of Daniel , not only are substitutes for Yahweh regularly employed , but the verbal form YeHeWeH he is or will be , which occurs regularly in the Elephantine papyri, to avoid confusion with the ineffable name YHWH was changed to LeHeWeH similarly the plurals lehewon, lehewyah.
The Century Bible , by Adeney and Bennett, Volume 1, page 91, chronicles the establishment of this doctrine. Hebrew was originally written without vowels, but when the vowel points were added, the vowels of Adonay or Elohim were written with yhwh, as a direction that these words were to be read instead of the word whose consonants were YHWH.
W e have already seen that the two names chosen to take the place of the Name Yahweh are Adonai and Elohim. The Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Kiddushin, page 71a, openly confirms that this became the standard practice of all Israyl, as it still is to this day. W e have plainly seen that due to the devices of our teachers and leaders, the rabbis, the Name of Yahweh fell into disuse. What started out in speech, also was transferred into writing.
The Name of Yahweh was replaced with the name Adonai so that down through the years, especially in the translation from Hebrew to other languages, The Holy Scriptures do not contain the Name of yahweh at all, but rather the title Lord.
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T he Encyclopedia Britanica , Volume 23, page , confirms the fact that the proper, original Name Yahweh was replaced with common substitutes: YAHWEH , the proper name of the God of Israel; it is composed of four consonants YHWH in Hebrew and is therefore called the tetragrammaton … The name Yahweh later ceased to be used by the Jews for two somewhat contradictory reasons.
The occurence of the four sacred letters in the text of the Bible itself could not be thus replaced , but the same fear of profanation caused Masoretes 6th-8th centuries a.
Names of God in Judaism
T he Jewish Encyclopedia , Volume 1, pages , , also points out this fact. Originally an appellation of God, the word became a definite title, and when the Tetragram became too holy for utterance Adonai was substituted for it, so that, as a rule, the name written yhwh receives the points of Adonai and is read Adonai, except in cases where Adonai precedes or succeeds it in the text, when it is read Elohim.
The vowel-signs e , o , a , given to the Tetragrammaton in the written text, therefore, indicate this pronunciation. Adonai, while the form Jehovah, introduced by a Christian writer about , rests on a misunderstanding. The translation of yhwh by the word Lord in the King James and in other versions is due to the traditional reading of the Tetragrammaton as Adonai, and this can be traced to the oldest translation of the Bible, the Septuagint … … No wonder, then, that the Greek translators of the Bible , even though some scribe might now and then write the Tetragrammaton in the archaic Hebrew form on the margin, II I II I, as found by Origen see facsimile attached to article AQUILA , took great care to render the name II I II I regularly Kupios , Lord, as if they knew of no other reading but Adonai.
Translations dependant upon the Septuagint have the same reading of the Name.
Yahweh - Ancient History Encyclopedia
However, the simple fact remains, in the very earliest writings, known as the J or Yahwist manuscripts, the Name of Yahweh is used exclusively. So then, how did these words come to be accepted as suitable substitutes for the Name Yahweh? The following is a photo of Psalms in the Dead Sea Scrolls which are a collection of Hebrew Scriptures that date back years.
T he general consensus among scholars is that there are four main sources or manuscripts of The Holy Scriptures named J , E , P , and D. The Encyclopedia Judaica , Volume 13, page , gives us this fact. The opinion accepted in contemporary biblical research is that the pentateuchal literature is composed of four major sources: J, E, P, and D. Most of the writings in the Old Testament are of anonymous authorship, and in many cases it is not known whether they were compiled by individuals or by groups.
Nevertheless, by careful evaluation of internal evidence and with the aid of various schools of biblical criticism q. O ur main concern will focus on the J and E sources. It is very important to note that the oldest source, the J exclusively. Yahwist source, used the Name of Yahweh. P is the Priestly Source and D the Deuteronomic.
The different usage of the divine name is not only a matter of form but relates to the type of attitude taken to the history of the religion of Israel. In contrast, E and P , while admitting that the God who was revealed to the Patriarchs is the God who was revealed to Moses, maintain that the Patriarchs did not know Him by His true name, and there is doubtless theological significances to this lack of knowledge.
Furthermore, P , which places great emphasis on the religious chasm between the period of the Patriarchs and that of Moses, does not consider the possibility of legitimate worship of God sacrifices before the revelation in the time of Moses.