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For more guidance, see Wikipedia:Translation. Middling brownstain on title page, less extensive and lighter in rest of quire. In good condition. Signature on title page and p. This volume includes sections on breeding, the illnesses of canaries and their remedies, and how to teach the birds to sing.
When canaries were introduced to European nobility in the late fifteenth century, singing birds in cages suddenly became all the rage. This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page.
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This article includes a list of references , but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. January Learn how and when to remove this template message. MacCP was an important reference but, although Gomes Ferreira, Dores and Vaquinhas at least were well-acquainted with it, they reached different conclusions regarding the existence of a Timorese creole. Boxer refers to the establishment of a Portuguese fort on the island of Solor, adjacent to Flores, and the growth of a community of native Christians, Portuguese missionaries, soldiers, sailors, and sandalwood traders from Malacca and Macau, and their local descendants.
The initial base for the founding of this community was Malacca. In these establishments, Portuguese, CP and L2 contact Portuguese must have been current, alongside Malay and other local languages. The influx of refugees from the Dutch conquest of Makassar introduced further elements from a Portuguese community with a similar racial and linguistic composition, and most certainly re introduced a CP ultimately originating in Malacca.
Conflicts with the Larantuqueiros led to the removal of the Portuguese administrative base first to Lifau, in , and subsequently to Dili, in Boxer, Currently, some boys from Larantuka are studying with the Portuguese missionaries in the school at Lahane Dili ; they never lose the interest to learn Portuguese, which they forget as years go by and thus begin to speak broken Portuguese or creole Portuguese.
This report is important because it points to a little-documented connection between Larantuka and Portuguese Timor as late as the 19 th century. While the link to Larantuka constitutes an important part of the earlier background to contact Portuguese in Dili, the Macau connection amply referred to in our sources is also significant, as the sandalwood trade mostly exported to Macau and, after the Dutch conquests of Malacca and Makassar , Macau became the nearest official Portuguese administrative centre.
In fact, in one of his publications, Rafael das Dores 20 observes that Bidau, aside from housing the majority of the militiamen of the former Bidau battalion, was also home to most Chinese shop-owners.
Salmos NVI-PT - Mateo NBD | Biblica
We assume they would have had knowledge of L2 Portuguese and, quite possibly, some knowledge of MacCP. For their part, the Macanese were of various sources, including convicts, traders and, principally, minor government officials and military personnel Dores, 2; Thomaz, : That the presence of MacCP in Dili was noticed by Portuguese observers, and, according to Dores, even influenced Tetun Dili, suggests that its number of speakers may not have been insignificant.
Thus, there is a strong possibility that MacCP could have contributed to a pre-existing bcp. It is valid to reflect on how the linguistic features of our late 19 th - and early 20 th -c. It is divided into 3 sections: the first section lists features found in at least one of the early sources, in the mat corpus of bcp , and in South East Asian CP s; the second contains features in the early sources which occur in South East Asian CP s but are not attested in the mat corpus; the last section has features attested in the early sources but not in either the mat corpus of bcp nor in the other South East Asian CP s.
In each section, the features are ordered in decreasing order of the number of early sources that attest them.
Brackets indicate values that offer some degree of doubt, most of which were duly explained above. Pluses indicate the definite presence of a feature, while a dot means that the corpus does not attest it. Therefore, it is not possible to make a very meaningful quantitative analysis of the data, but some interesting observations can be made. The short turn-of-the-century corpora repeat several of the already attested bcp features which have been invoked to place it within the family of Southeast Asian CP s.
Interestingly, this is true not only of the data provided by those authors who recognized the development of a Timorese creole Vaquinhas and Castro but even of those who claimed to have been representing L2 Portuguese Casal Ribeiro and Gomes Ferreira. Thus, it seems reasonable to confirm that data from CP was present, and the dichotomy between CP in whatever of the varieties present and L2 Portuguese was not absolute. Also, while certain items e. Nevertheless, we do have the testimonies of Vaquinhas, Castro and Dores, confirming the presence of at least two varieties of CP : that of Bidau and that of Macau.
While the mat corpus from the s remains the primary corpus of bcp , the turn-of-the-century data adds a few new items to the discussion. The only feature which might require a reference to South Asian CP is the future tense marker derived from Ptg.
However, an independent development of this form in Timor from spoken Portuguese input is conceivable. Furthermore, there are indications that, even though derivations of Ptg.
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Dili, and Portuguese Timor at large. These perspectives capture the use of L2 Portuguese, displaying evidence of both independent contact L2 solutions under the influence of Malay and Tetun, and of the presence of genuine Asian CP items widely attested elsewhere. This suggests that some L2 Portuguese may have been an L2 dimension of a creole or, in the least, had significant exposure to creole features.